A wireless network serves the same purpose as a wired one — to connect a group of users. Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented and  administered using radio  communication. This implementation takes place at the physical level (layer) of the OSI model network structure. Wireless networks operate using  radio frequency (RF) technology, a frequency  within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. When an RF current is supplied to an antenna,  an electromagnetic field is created that then is able to propagate  through space. Examples of wireless networks include cell phone networks, Wi-Fi local networks and  terrestrial microwave networks. Telecommunication greatly increases and expands  resources to all types of people. For example, businesses need a  greater telecommunications network if they plan to expand their company. With Internet, computer, and telephone networks,  businesses can allocate their resources efficiently.  If you have a cell phone, there is wireless technology behind its functionality. To help user understand carriers defined generic term like “2G”, “3G” and “4G” or technically  coined as “GSM”, “CDMA”, “EVDO”, “UMTS”, “WCDMA”, “WiMax” and “LTE”.


GSM was developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute while CDMA (The American Contender) was developed by Qualcomm. For 2G data, GSM uses GPRS or enhanced GPRS (Edge). In GSM, unlike 2G, 3G standards have their own dedicated radio bands for data. The benefit is more bandwidth for faster speed. UMTS came first, followed up with HSPA, HSPA+, and dual-carrier HSPA+. Now a 3G speed can be anywhere from 3.5 Mbps UMTS to a nearly LTE-like 42 Mbps HSPA+. Because of this wide discrepancy, T-Mobile USA and then AT&T started 
referring to the more advanced versions as “4G”. The CDMA brand name encompasses two different standards: IS-95 & CDMA One, a 2G digital service, and its modern 3G successor CDMA-2000. “3G” Data is provided by Evolution Data Optimized (EV-DO). EV-DO is technically on its 4th version, Rev. C, but the majority of carriers are using Rev. A. EV-DO is reasonably competitive with early UMTS speeds. Because of the less than ideal speeds, CDMA carriers started to look for other options. Sprint has offered Clearwire’s WiMAX network as a “4G” solution. Verizon, on the other hand, started an early transition to LTE.



 While Long Term Evolution (LTE) is part of the GSM path, it will be the only cellular technology going forward. It has been introduced in data form by most  carriers and in  widespread use by Verizon. Voice over LTE (VoLTE) will eventually handle your voice calls as well. LTE also comes in two different flavors:  Frequency-Division Duplexing (FDD)  and Time-Division Duplexing (TDD).  With changing face of technology in wireless the network architecture has its own  diversifications. In GSM Network Architecture the major
 components are the Mobile Station, BSS (Base Stations SubSystem) and NSS (Network Station Subsystem). The Mobile Station performs the switching of calls  between the mobile  users, and between mobile and fixed network users. The Base Station Subsystem consists of BTS and BSCs which control the radio link  with the Mobile Station, whereas Network  Subsystem includes the MSS (MSC, VLR, HLR) and MGW. 3G UMTS/WCDMA network architecture was designed to  enable a considerable improvement in data performance over  that provided for GSM. The UMTS network architecture can be divided into three main elements  UE, RNS and Core Network. User Equipment (UE) the name given to what was  previous called the mobile, or cellphone, or the mobile station. The new name  was chosen because the considerably greater functionality that the UE could have. It could also be  anything between a mobile phone used for talking to a data terminal attached to a computer with no voice capability. Radio Network Subsystem (RNS) also known as the UMTS Radio Access Network, UTRAN, is the equivalent of the previous Base Station Subsystem or BSS in GSM. It provides and manages the air interface for the overall network. The core network provides all the central processing and management for the system. It is the equivalent of the GSM Network Switching Subsystem or NSS.


LTE network also called EPS (Evolved Packet System) is an end-to-end (E2E) all IP network; EPS is divided into two parts - LTE part which deals with the technology related to a radio access network (E-UTRAN) and EPC part which deals with the technology related to a core network. Architecture can be classified in two parts Access Network (UE and eNB) and Core Network or EPC entities (S-GW, P-GW, MME, HSS, PCRF, SPR, OCS and OFCS). An E2E all IP network means that all traffic flows – from a UE all the way to a PDN which connects to a service entity – are transferred based on IP protocol within EPS.

The major contributors in Telecommunication Industry are Alcatel Lucent, Nokia, Ericsson, Samsung, Huawei, ZTE, Qualcomm, Nortel, Cisco, 
Juniper, Tellabs who are supporting various telecommunication operators specifically in India like Airtel, Reliance, Vodafone, Tata 
Teleservices, Idea Cellular, Aircel, MTS, Telenor (Uninor).

Training Solutions:

Telecommunications Technologies

  • EVDO
  • GSM vs CDMA
  • LTE – Future of Telecommunication
  • LTE Advanced
  • SS7
  • IMS
  • NGN
  • VoLTE
  • VoIP
  • Circuit Switching & Packet Switching


  • ATM
  • ASON
  • MPLS over Transport Network

RF Planning & Optimization

  • RF Principles and Network Architecture
  • GSM RF Planning & Optimization
  • GSM RF Performance Management
  • UMTS RF Planning & Optimization
  • UMTS RF Performance Management
  • LTE RF Planning & Optimization
  • LTE RF Performance Tuning
  • LTE RAN Performance Monitoring

BSS/RAN/eUTRAN Operations and Maintenance

  • GSM BSS Operations and Maitenance
  • GSM BTS Operations and Maintenance
  • GSM BSC Operations and Maintenance
  • GSM BSS Troubleshooting
  • NodeB Operations and Maintenance
  • RNC Operations and Maintenance
  • RNC Troubleshooting
  • UMTS RAN Operations and Maintenance
  • RAN Troubleshooting
  • EUTRAN Operations and Maintenance
  • eNodeB Operations and Maintenance

Core Network Operations and Maintenance

  • Core Network Planning
  • NSS Operations and Maintenance
  • NSS Troubleshooting
  • MSC Operations and Maintenance
  • MSS Operations and Maintenance
  • MGW Operations and Maintenance
  • SGSN Operations and Maintenance
  • GGSN Operations and Maintenance
  • SGSN/GGSN Troubleshooting
  • LTE EPC Operations and Maintenance

LTE Training

  • LTE Core Training Program
  • LTE RAN Performance Optimization Training Program
  • LTE RAN Training Program
  • LTE Advanced (LTE-A) Training
  • LTE Evolved Packet Core (EPC) Training
  • PCRF
  • SBC – Session Border Controller
  • CSFB – Circuit Switch Fallback
  • IP Multimedia Subsystem

OSS & VAS Trainings

  • SMSC Operations and Maintenance
  • NMS
  • STP & MNP